Scientists used statistics to summarize their data (making it easier to present their data) and to help them make conclusions based on their data. A description of these statistics is described in your lab manual.

In this quiz, you must download this Excel file. When you open the file, you will find that there are two sheets, one named "values" the other is named "Quiz Sheet" - see the tabs at the bottom. There are three columns of data on the "values" while the other sheet is empty - the values sheet is shown below. Your values will not be the same as the ones shown here.

Highlight all the data, including the column labels and use the "copy"
function to copy the data to the clipboard. Go to "* Quiz Sheet*" and highlight A1.
On the left hand side of the HOME tab are the copy and paste buttons. Use the
the copy command to copy the data. To paste, click on the small arrow just
below the word

Format each cell so that each cell has only 1 decimal point. One way to
do this is to highlight on all the cells that you wish to format, right mouse
click on the highlighted cells, and you will see the menu shown in the figure
below. Select **Format Cells.**

You will then get the following dialog box. In the Category box, select
number and set Decimal Places to 1 (as shown in the figure). Press **OK
**and you will now find that numbers have just 1 decimal place!

There are 20 values for each column, extending from row 2 to row 21.
You are to use the built in functions of Excel to calculate the average (**avg**)
and the standard deviation (**stdev**). Place the average of each column in
row 22 (so that they lie directly below the set of data) and the standard
deviation in row 23. You must format the table (in any clear way) so that you
can label row 22 so that the reader will know that it is the average (and so the
same with standard deviation). Please format the all formula cells so that there
is only 1 decimal place and so the
font is NOT black (all other values should be left black). You may use any color
as long as the numbers are readable and the same color is used for all formula
cells. This is done using the** format cells** menu that you used to set the
number of decimal places. Select the **font **tab** **to change the
font attributes (including color). One example is shown below.

There is no built-in function for percent error, so you must create the
formula. Let us assume that the actual values for each column should
be 25. You can now use the average that you calculated for each column to
calculate the percent error. Remember that percent error or the mean is
equal to the absolute value of ((**calculated mean - actual value)/actual
value) * 100**. Select cell A 24 and type in the label "Percent Error".
Enter the formula for the percent error in cell B 24. Remember that all
formulas must start with an equal sign - so type
=((B22-25)/25)*100 and press the ENTER key - this will then
calculate the percent error for the average of the values in column B.
Drag the box to copy the formula to column C and D.

Next, you must perform the t-test to determine if the various columns are significantly different.